Component/Level* Beginning Intermediate Advanced
Formulate Questions
• Beginning awareness of the statistics question distinction
• Teachers pose questions of interest
• Questions restricted to the classroom
• Increased awareness of the statistics question distinction
• Students begin to pose their own questions of interest
• Questions not restricted to the classroom
• Students can make the statistics question distinction
• Students pose their own questions of interest
• Questions seek generalization
Collect Data
• Do not yet design for differences
• Census of classroomSimple experiment
• Beginning awareness of design for differences
• Sample surveys; begin to use random selection
• Comparative experiment; begin to use random allocation
• Students make design for differences
• Sampling designs with random selection
• Experimental designs with randomization
Analyze Data
• Use particular properties of distributions in the context of a specific example
• Display variability within a group
• Compare individual to individual
• Compare individual to group
• Beginning awareness of group to group Observe association between two variables
• Learn to use particular properties of distributions as tools of analysis
• Quantify variability within a group
• Compare group to group in displays
• Acknowledge sampling error
• Some quantification of association; simple models for association
• Understand and use distributions in analysis as a global concept
• Measure variability within a group; measure variability between groups
• Compare group to group using displays and measures of variability
• Describe and quantify sampling error
• Quantification of association; fitting of models for association
Interpret Data
• Students do not look beyond the data
• No generalization beyond the classroom
• Note difference between two individuals with different conditions
• Observe association in displays
• Students acknowledge that looking beyond the data is feasible
• Acknowledge that a sample may or may not be representative of the larger population
• Note the difference between two groups with different conditions
• Aware of distinction between observational study and experiment
• Note differences in strength of association
• Basic interepretation of models for association
• Aware of the distinction between association and cause and effect
• Students are able to look beyond the data in some contexts
• Generalize from sample to population
• Aware of the effect of randomization on the results of experiments
• Understand the difference between observational studies and experiments
• Interpret measures of strength of association Interpret models of association
• Distinguish between conclusions from association studies and experiments

*Descriptions are from Table 1 on pages 14-15 (A - Beginning; B - Intermediate; C - Advanced) in Franklin, C., Kader, G., Mewborn, D., Moreno, J., Peck, R., Perry, M., & Scheaffer, R. (2007). Guidelines for assessment and instruction in statistics education (GAISE) report. Alexandria, VA: American Statistical Association.